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:2008年翻译资格考试三级口译模拟试题二(4)

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今业网校栏目小编为大家介绍关于“2008年翻译资格考试三级口译模拟试题二(4)”,希望能帮助到大家:

Questions 6--10

  Most sore throats are caused by an infection which treatment with antibioticscannot cure. But with simple remedies the patient normally gets better in 4 or 5 days.Sore throats are common. Most of the time the soreness is worse in the morningand improves as the day progresses.

  Like colds, the vast majority of sore throats are caused by viral infections. Thismeans most sore throats will NOT respond to antibiotics. Many people have a mildsore throat at the beginning of every cold. When the nose or sinuses become infected,drainage can run down the back of the throat and irritate it, especially at night. Or, thethroat itself can be infected.

  With a sore throat, sometimes the tonsils or surrounding parts of the throat areinflamed. Either way, removing the tonsils to try to prevent future sore throats is notrecommended for most children.

  Tonsillitis, however, usually starts with a sore throat which causes pain onswallowing. With children―and some adults―there may be a fever and the patient isobviously not feeling well. It may be possible to see white spots on the back of thethroat. The neck may also swell, both of which are the normal response to infection.Sometimes a sore throat may occur with the common cold, and with influenzathere may be dryness of the throat, pain on coughing and loss of voice.

TREATMENT:

  Asp irin: To help relieve the pain on swallowing and (if there is one) the fever. Useaspirin tablets dissolved in water so that the patient can gargle before swallowing.Repeat the treatment every 4 hours.
  Drink: Encourage the patient to drink plenty.
  Food: Food should not be forced on a patient who does not want to eat.
  Steam: If there is pain in the throat on coughing, breathing in steam may help.

CHILDREN:

  Young children, who may not be able to gargle, should be given aspirin dissolvedin water every 4 hours in the right dose for their age.
  At one year: A single junior aspirin.
  At five years: Half an adult aspirin.
  At eight years: One whole adult aspirin.

WHEN TO SEE THE DOCTOR:

If the sore throat it still getting worse after 2 days.
If the patient complains of earache.
It the patient s fever increases.
If the patient or parent is very worried.

6. According to the passage, it would appear that most sore throats _____.

(A) require an immediate visit to a doctor
(B) respond quickly to treatment with an antibiotic
(C) rarely turn out to be serious illnesses
(D) result in tonsillitis even when treated

7. One of the signs of tonsillitis can often be _____.

(A) difficulty in swallowing food and liquid
(B) pain in the chest when the patient coughs
(C) white spots appearing on the neck
(D) earache during the first four or five days

8. In order to treat a sore throat one should _____.

(A) prevent the patient from eating too much
(B) give the patient up to 4 aspirin tablets every hour
(C) make sure the patient takes in plenty of liquid
(D) make the patient gargle with soft drink

9. You should call the doctor in if _____.

(A) the infection spreads to another member of the family
(B) swelling occurs in the region of the ears
(C) the patient s voice is lost after two days
(D) the patient s condition continues to worsen

10. As used in the passage, the word “gargle” means _____.

(A) to wash one s mouth and throat with a liquid in motion by breathing through it
(B) to eat something with a continuous and often audible action of one sjaws
(C) to bite and work in the mouth with one s teeth, especially to make it easier toswallow something
(D) to cause or allow something, especially food or drink, to pass down one s sore throat

Questions 11--15

  I watched as Dr Ian Stead, the archaeologist in charge of the excavation, begancarefully removing the peat with a clay modelling tool. X-rays taken through the boxwhile it was at the hospital revealed ribs, backbone, arm bones and a skull (apparentlywith fractures)。 However, the bones showed up only faintly because acid in the peat hadremoved minerals from them.

  Using the X-rays, Stead started on what he thought might be a leg. By his side wasProfessor Frank Oldfield, of Liverpool University, an expert on peat who could identifyvegetation from stems only a fraction of an inch long. “Similar bodies found in bogs inDenmark show signs of a violent death,” Stead said. “It is essential for us to be able todistinguish between the plant fibres in peat and clothing or a piece of rope which mighthave been used to hang him.”

  As Stead continued his gentle probing, a brown leathery limb began to materialiseamidst the peat; but not until most of it was exposed could he and Robert Connolly, aphysical anthropologist at Liverpool University, decide that it was an arm. Beside it wasa small piece of animal fur―perhaps the remains of clothing.

  Following the forearm down into the peat, Stead found a brown shiny object andthen, close by, two more. Seen under a magnifying glass, he suddenly realised theywere fingernails―“beautifully manicured and without a scratch on them,” he said.“Most people at this time in the Iron Age were farmers; but with fingernails like that,this person can t have been. He might have been a priest or an aristocrat.”Especially delicate work was required to reveal the head. On the third day, a curlysideburn appeared and, shortly afterwards, a moustache. At first it seemed that the manhad been balding but gradually he was seen to have close-cropped hair, about an inch ortwo long.

  “This information about his hairstyle is unique. We have no other informationabout what Britons looked like before the Roman invasion except for three smallplaques showing Celts with drooping moustaches and shaven chins.”

  The crucial clue showing how the man died had already been revealed, close to hisneck, but it looked just like another innocent heather root. It was not recognised untiltwo days later, when Margaret McCord, a senior conservation officer, found the sameroot at the back of his neck and, cleaning it carefully, saw its twisted texture. “He sbeen garrotted.” She declared. The ‘root was a length of twisted sinew, the thickness ofstrong string. A slip knot at the back shows how it was tightened round the neck.

  “A large discoloration on the left shoulder suggests a bruise and possibly a violentstruggle,” Stead said.

11. The X-rays that were taken showed Stead and Oldfield _____.

(A) a vague picture of the bones
(B) exactly what they were looking for
(C) which deposits were clay and which peat
(D) exactly how the man had died

12. The researchers suspected the man had met a violent death because _____.

(A) he was still wearing clothes
(B) similar bodies had been found elsewhere
(C) there were traces of a hanging rope in the peat
(D) he hadn t been buried in a coffin

13. It was the forearm they uncovered which _____.

(A) required the most delicate work
(B) indicated the age of the man
(C) told them something about the man s clothes
(D) led them to discover the fingernails

14. Why did the researchers think the man was possibly a priest?

(A) He had closely-cropped hair.
(B) His coat was fur-lined
(C) He had a drooping moustache and shaven chin.
(D) His fingernails were well looked after.

15. It was established that the man they dug out of the peat had been _____.

(A) beheaded
(B) strangled
(C) drowned
(D) stabbed in the neck

更多翻译资格考试相关信息请关注:

2008全国翻译资格等级考试网上辅导方案
2008年全国翻译资格等级考试下半年考试时间:11月8日,9日
全国翻译资格等级考试常见问题及解答
全国翻译资格等级考试大纲汇总
翻译资格等级考试用书推荐

:2008年翻译资格考试三级口译模拟试题二(5)

Questions 16--20

  Does using a word processor affect a writer s style? The medium usually does dosomething to the message after all, even if Marshall McLuhan s claim that the mediumsimply is the message has been heard and largely forgotten now. The question matters.Ray Hammond, in his excellent guide The Writer and the Word Processor (Coronet£2.95 pp224), predicts that over half of the professional writers in Britain and the USAwill be using word processors by the end of 1995. The best-known recruit is LenDeighton, from as long ago as 1968, though most users have only started since themicro-computer boom began in 1980.

  Ironically word processing is in some ways psychologically more like writing inrough than typing, since it restores fluidity and provisionality to the text. The typist sdread of having to get out the Tippex, the scissors and paste, or of redoing the wholething if he has any substantial second thoughts, can make him consistently choose thesafer option in his sentences, or let something stand which he knows to be unsatisfactory or incomplete, out of weariness. In word processing the text is loosenedup whilst still retaining the advantage of looking formally finished.

  This has, I think, two apparently contradictory effects. The initial writing canbecome excessively sloppy and careless, in the expectation that it will be corrected later.That crucial first inspiration is never easy to recapture though, and therefore, on theother hand, the writing can become over-deliberated, lacking in flow and spontaneity,since revision becomes a larger part of composition. However these are faults easier todetect in others than in oneself.

  For most writers, word processing quite rapidly comes to feel like the ideal method(and can always be a second step after drafting on paper if you prefer)。 Most of thewriters interviewed by Hammond say it has improved their style (“immensely”, saysDeighton)。 Seeing your own words on a screen helps you to feel cool and detachedabout them.

  Thus it is not just by freeing you from the labour of mechanical re-typing that aword processor can help you to write. One author (Terence Feely) claims it hasincreased his output by 400%. Possibly the feeling of having a reactive machine, whichappears to do things, rather than just have things done with it, accounts for this―yourslave works hard and so do you.

  Are there no drawbacks? It costs a lot and takes time to learn―“expect to loseweeks of work”, says Hammond, though days might be nearer the mark. Notoriously itis possible to lose work altogether on a word processor, and this happens to everybodyat least once. The awareness that what you have written no longer exists at all anywhere,is unbelievably enraging and baffling.

16. According to the first paragraph of the passage, what is the obvious change forprofessional writers in Britain and the USA?

(A) The style they are employing.
(B) The medium they are using.
(C) The way they are being recruited.
(D) The paper they are writing on.

17. Typing in the conventional manner, a writer may _____.

(A) choose to white more carefully
(B) make more mistakes
(C) become overcritical of his or her work
(D) have a lot of second thoughts

18. One effect of using a word processor may be that the ongoing revision of a text_____.

(A) is done with too little attention
(B) produces a sloppy effect
(C) is lacking in flow and spontaneity
(D) does not encourage one to pick up mistakes

19. It is claimed here that word processors create _____.

(A) a sense of power in the writer s mind
(B) a reluctance in the author to express himself or herself
(C) an illusion as if you were a servant of the machine
(D) a feeling of distance between a writer and his or her work

20. As far as learning to use a word processor is concerned, the author of the passage
mentions a number of drawbacks EXCEPT that _____.

(A) it takes time
(B) it is costly
(C) the user may rely too much on the machine
(D) the user may lose weeks of work

Questions 21--25

  In almost all cases the soft parts of fossils are gone for ever but they were fittedaround or within the hard parts. Many of them also were attached to the hard parts andusually such attachments are visible as depressed or elevated areas, ridges, or grooves,smooth or rough patches on the hard parts. The muscles most important for theactivities of the animal and most evident in the appearance of the living animal arethose attached to the hard parts and possible to reconstruct from their attachments.Much can be learned about a vanished brain from the inside of the skull in which it waslodged.

  Restoration of the external appearance of an extinct animal has little or noscientific value. It does not even help in inferring what the activities of the livinganimal were, how fast it could run, what its food was, or such other conclusions as areimportant for the history of life. However, what most people want to know about extinctanimals is what they looked like when they were alive. Scientists also would like toknow. Things like fossil shells present no great problem as a rule, because the hard partsare external when the animal is alive and the outer appearance is actually preserved inthe fossils.

  Animals in which the skeleton is internal present great problems of restoration,and honest restorers admit that they often have to use considerable guessing. Thegeneral shape and contours of the body are fixed by the skeleton and by musclesattached to the skeleton, but surface features, which may give the animal its reallycharacteristic look, are seldom restorable with any real probability of accuracy. Thepresent often helps to interpret the past. An extinct animal presumably looked more orless like its living relatives, if it has any. This, however, may be quite equivocal. Forexample, extinct members of the horse family are usually restored to look somewhatlike the most familiar living horses―domestic horses and their closest wild relatives.It is, however, possible and even probable that many extinct horses were striped likezebras. Others probably had patterns no longer present in any living members of thefamily. If lions and tigers were extinct they would be restored to look exactly alike.No living elephants have much hair and mammoths, which are extinct elephants,would doubtless be restored as hairless if we did not happen to know that they hadthick, woolly coats. We know this only because mammoths are so recently extinct thatprehistoric men drew pictures of them and that the hide and hair have actually beenfound in a few specimens. For older extinct animals we have no such clues.

21. According to the passage, the soft part of fossilized animals _____.

(A) can always be accurately identified
(B) have usually left some traces
(C) can usually be reconstructed
(D) have always vanished without any trace

22. The muscles of a fossilized animal can sometimes be reconstructed because _____.

(A) they were preserved with the rest of the animal
(B) they were lodged inside the animal s skull
(C) they were hardened parts of the animal s body
(D) they were attached to the animal s skeleton

23. The reconstruction of a fossilized animal s external appearance is considered necessary in order to _____.

(A) satisfy popular curiosity
(B) answer scientific questions
(C) establish its activities
(D) determine its eating habits

24. The word “equivocal” (para. 3) means _____.

(A) equally important
(B) definable
(C) equally doubtful
(D) deliberate

25. The third paragraph of the passage deals with the difficulties of restoring the following fossilized animals EXCEPT _____.

(A) those which had complex internal structures
(B) those which had no external hard parts
(C) those which had fur-covered bodies
(D) those which had no living relatives

更多翻译资格考试相关信息请关注:

2008全国翻译资格等级考试网上辅导方案
2008年全国翻译资格等级考试下半年考试时间:11月8日,9日
全国翻译资格等级考试常见问题及解答
全国翻译资格等级考试大纲汇总
翻译资格等级考试用书推荐

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